[426], North Korea's most famous restaurant, Okryu-gwan, located in Pyongyang, is known for its raengmyeon cold noodles. [133] Scholar Brian Reynolds Myers views North Korea's actual ideology as a Korean ethnic nationalism similar to statism in Shōwa Japan and European fascism. Washington, D.C . As they neared the border with China, Chinese forces intervened on behalf of North Korea, shifting the balance of the war again. North Korea (Korean: 조선/朝鮮, MR: Chosŏn; literally 북조선/北朝鮮, MR: Pukchosŏn, or 북한/北韓, RR: Bukhan in South Korean usage), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK or DPR Korea; Korean: 조선민주주의인민공화국/朝鮮民主主義人民共和國, Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula. Negotiations on reunification failed. [155], North Korea enjoys a close relationship with China which is often called North Korea's closest ally. [65], During the 1956 August Faction Incident, Kim Il-sung successfully resisted efforts by the Soviet Union and China to depose him in favor of Soviet Koreans or the pro-Chinese Yan'an faction. [259], Most graduates from the compulsory program do not attend university but begin their obligatory military service or proceed to work in farms or factories instead. [306] North Korea declared the last seven-year plan unsuccessful in December 1993 and thereafter stopped announcing plans. [268], Maternal mortality is lower than other low-income countries, but significantly higher than South Korea and other high income countries, at 89 per 100,000 live births. And for you, too. Couldn't find the full form or full meaning of Pyongyang, North Korea? [264] Late marriages after military service, limited housing space and long hours of work or political studies further exhaust the population and reduce growth. [289] Freedom of religion and the right to religious ceremonies are constitutionally guaranteed, but religions are restricted by the government. [215], Judges are theoretically elected by their respective local people's assemblies, but in practice they are appointed by the Workers' Party of Korea. Some of the most influential films are based on historic events (An Jung-geun shoots Itō Hirobumi) or folk tales (Hong Gildong). In the immediate vicinity of South Korea are countries such as North Korea, Japan & Taiwan. To its west are the Yellow Sea and Korea Bay, and to its east lies Japan across the Sea of Japan. "Kim Jong Un is skirting sanctions and pursuing this energy strategy to keep North Korea afloat", "North Korea to Utilize Science and Technology to Overcome Its Energy Crisis", "North Korea Adopts Renewable Energy Law", "Progress in North Korea's Renewable Energy Production", "Activity Seen at North Korean Nuclear Plant", "High Speed Rail and Road Connecting Kaesong-Pyongyang-Sinuiju to be Built", "Cars on Pyongyang streets can tell us a lot about the country", "North Korea to Become Strong in Science and Technology by Year 2022", N. Korea moves to develop cutting-edge nanotech industry, "Two Koreas can cooperate in chemistry, biotech and nano science: report", "High-Tech Development Zones: The Core of Building a Powerful Knowledge Economy Nation", ". [396] Western classical music by Brahms, Tchaikovsky, Stravinsky and other composers is performed both by the State Symphony Orchestra and student orchestras. [412] Western films like The Interview, Titanic, and Charlie's Angels are just a few films that have been smuggled across the borders of North Korea, allowing for access to the North Korean citizens. Bolton called on North Korea to clearly acknowledge the part of its nuclear program that deals with uranium enrichment, saying without that clarification, ''it's hard to see how you could get a complete, verifiable and irreversible dismantlement. [200] Supporters of the government who deviate from the government line are subject to reeducation in sections of labor camps set aside for that purpose. [24] A 2014 UN inquiry into human rights in North Korea concluded that, "The gravity, scale and nature of these violations reveal a state that does not have any parallel in the contemporary world". DPNK is defined as North Korea somewhat frequently. [325] Iron ore and coal production are among the few sectors where North Korea performs significantly better than its southern neighbor—it produces about 10 times larger amounts of each resource. One of the guerrilla leaders was the communist Kim Il-sung, who later became the first leader of North Korea. [256] The national birth rate is 14.5 births per year per 1,000 population. [336] The Kaesong Industrial Region is a special economic zone where more than 100 South Korean companies employ some 52,000 North Korean workers. Altri significati di NKFA Oltre a Atto di libertà di Corea del Nord, NKFA ha altri significati. [132] Juche's concepts of self-reliance have evolved with time and circumstances, but still provide the groundwork for the spartan austerity, sacrifice and discipline demanded by the party. The fund is reported to be primarily tasked with providing the capital needed to develop the country's military technology (above all else, its nuclear weapons program), as well as contributing to a system of "gift giving" for the country's political, military and business elite. [385], After the peninsula was divided in 1945, two distinct cultures formed out of the common Korean heritage. [179], The Sunshine Policy instituted by South Korean president Kim Dae-jung in 1998 was a watershed in inter-Korean relations. Two of them broadcast only on weekends and the Korean Central Television is on air every day in the evenings. An invasion initiated by North Korea led to the Korean War (1950–1953). Some scholars believe that the 1956 August incident demonstrated independence. Oltre a NK, Corea del Nord può essere breve per altri acronimi. Abbreviation for North Korea in Sports. There is much speculation about this policy being used as a strategy to strengthen the military while discouraging coup attempts. Comments, questions, and permission to cite should be directed to the author. [171] They met in Hanoi from 27 to 28 February 2019, but failed to achieve an agreement. In December 2013, former American basketball professional Dennis Rodman visited North Korea to help train the national team after he developed a friendship with Kim Jong-un. [319][320] In 2009, the government attempted to stem the expanding free market by banning jangmadang and the use of foreign currency,[308] heavily devaluing the won and restricting the convertibility of savings in the old currency,[279] but the resulting inflation spike and rare public protests caused a reversal of these policies. Its 687 members are elected every five years by universal suffrage,[113] though the elections have been described by outside observers as sham elections. [433], North Korea's first appearance in the Olympics came in 1964. [207], According to Human Rights Watch, which cites interviews with defectors, North Korean women are routinely subjected to sexual violence, unwanted sexual contact, and rape. [165], North Korea was previously designated a state sponsor of terrorism[166] because of its alleged involvement in the 1983 Rangoon bombing and the 1987 bombing of a South Korean airliner. 2-Letter Country Name Abbreviations. [158], As of 2015[update], North Korea had diplomatic relations with 166 countries and embassies in 47 countries. A free universal insurance system is in place. [299] There are 3 main classifications and about 50 sub-classifications. In 1959, relations with Japan had improved somewhat, and North Korea began allowing the repatriation of Japanese citizens in the country. 1 for military spending relative to GDP: State Department report", "Force Index | National Rankings by Military Strength", "Foreign Assistance to North Korea: Congressional Research Service Report for Congress", "US Has Put Food Aid for North Korea on Hold", "The State of North Korean Farming: New Information from the UN Crop Assessment Report", "Korea, Democratic People's Republic (DPRK) | WFP | United Nations World Food Programme – Fighting Hunger Worldwide", "North Korea Census Reveals Poor Demographic and Health Conditions", "Life expectancy at birth, total (years) - Korea, Dem. [77], Flooding in the mid-1990s exacerbated the economic crisis, severely damaging crops and infrastructure and led to widespread famine which the government proved incapable of curtailing, resulting in the deaths of between 240,000 and 420,000 people. [422], Korean cuisine has evolved through centuries of social and political change. [316] Food and housing are extensively subsidized by the state; education and healthcare are free;[277] and the payment of taxes was officially abolished in 1974. [393], In the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the Goguryeo tumulus is registered on the World Heritage list of UNESCO. [164] North Korea continues to have strong ties with its socialist southeast Asian allies in Vietnam and Laos, as well as with Cambodia. [137], According to New Focus International, the cult of personality, particularly surrounding Kim Il-sung, has been crucial for legitimizing the family's hereditary succession. [404] The Workers' Party of Korea Publishing House is the most authoritative among them and publishes all works of Kim Il-sung, ideological education materials and party policy documents. "[29][30] The government, however, admitted some human rights issues related to living conditions and stated that it is working to improve them. [130] The 2009 constitution dropped references to communism and elevated the Songun military-first policy while explicitly confirming the position of Kim Jong-il. [348], North Korea also strives to develop its own civilian nuclear program. KOR Alpha-3.kr TLD. [418], There are three state-owned TV stations. Kim Il-sung is still officially revered as the nation's "Eternal President". [150], The extent of the cult of personality surrounding Kim Jong-il and Kim Il-sung was illustrated on 11 June 2012 when a 14-year-old North Korean schoolgirl drowned while attempting to rescue portraits of the two from a flood. [419] Uriminzokkiri and its associated YouTube and Twitter accounts distribute imagery, news and video issued by government media. [201], North Korean defectors[202] have provided detailed testimonies on the existence of the total control zones where abuses such as torture, starvation, rape, murder, medical experimentation, forced labor, and forced abortions have been reported. [420] The Associated Press opened the first Western all-format, full-time bureau in Pyongyang in 2012. [275], North Korea has the highest number of doctors per capita amongst low-income countries, with 3.7 physicians per 1,000 people, a figure which is also significantly higher than that of South Korea, according to WHO's data. [151], As a result of its isolation, North Korea is sometimes known as the "hermit kingdom", a term that originally referred to the isolationism in the latter part of the Joseon Dynasty. In April 1948, an uprising of the Jeju islanders was violently crushed. [409] The national football team, Chollima, competed in the FIFA World Cup in 2010, when it lost all three matches against Brazil, Portugal and Ivory Coast. [391] The studio has commercialized its activity and sells its works to collectors in a variety of countries including China, where it is in high demand. A history of the Korean reunification movement: its issues and prospects. Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}40°N 127°E / 40°N 127°E / 40; 127. Wind power is projected to satisfy 15% of the country's total energy demand under this strategy. [266], North Korea had a life expectancy of 72.1 years in 2018, according to World Bank. [371], Usage of communication technology is controlled by the Ministry of Post and Telecommunications. [172] On 30 June 2019, Trump met with Kim along with Moon Jae-in at the Korean DMZ. Until the 1960s, economic growth was higher than in South Korea, and North Korean GDP per capita was equal to that of its southern neighbor as late as 1976. Extensive Soviet and Chinese support allowed North Korea to rapidly recover from the Korean War and register very high growth rates. [250], Much of the equipment is engineered and produced by a domestic defense industry. KR is the two-letter country abbreviation for South Korea. It employs around 1,000 artists in what is likely the biggest art factory in the world where paintings, murals, posters and monuments are designed and produced. [430], Most schools have daily practice in association football, basketball, table tennis, gymnastics, boxing and others. The Democratic People's Republic of Korea was established in the North on 9 September 1948. [212], Buddhism and Confucianism still influence cultural life. North Korea Locations, Fifa Country Code, Fifa Country Code. [178] Weapons are manufactured in roughly 1,800 underground defense industry plants scattered throughout the country, most of them located in Chagang Province. From 1994 to 1998, North Korea suffered a famine that resulted in the deaths of between 240,000 and 420,000 people, and the population continues to suffer malnutrition. [428][429] Okryu-gwan sends research teams into the countryside to collect data on Korean cuisine and introduce new recipes. We're doing our best to make sure our content is useful, accurate and safe.If by any chance you spot an inappropriate comment while navigating through our website please use this form to let us know, and we'll take care of it shortly. North Korea occupies the northern portion of the Korean Peninsula, lying between latitudes 37° and 43°N, and longitudes 124° and 131°E. [396] Sea of Blood is the most widely performed of the Five Great Operas: since its premiere in 1971, it has been played over 1,500 times,[397] and its 2010 tour in China was a major success. [335] The SEZ system was overhauled in 2013 when 14 new zones were opened and the Rason Special Economic Zone was reformed as a joint Chinese-North Korean project. [389] North Korean painting combines the influence of Soviet and Japanese visual expression to instill a sentimental loyalty to the system. Based on their own behavior and the political, social, and economic background of their family for three generations as well as behavior by relatives within that range, Songbun is allegedly used to determine whether an individual is trusted with responsibility, given opportunities,[299] or even receives adequate food. The exotic settings of the stories give authors more freedom to depict cyberwarfare, violence, sexual abuse and crime, which are absent in other genres. [409] Western productions are only available at private showings to high-ranking Party members,[410] although the 1997 film Titanic is frequently shown to university students as an example of Western culture. KOR Alpha-3. In 2013, this lineage was made explicit when Clause 2 of Article 10 of the newly edited Ten Fundamental Principles of the Korean Workers' Party stated that the party and revolution must be carried "eternally" by the "Mount Paektu Bloodline". [434] Weightlifter Kim Un-guk broke the world record of the Men's 62 kg category at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London. [61], A heavily guarded demilitarized zone (DMZ) still divides the peninsula, and an anti-communist and anti-North Korea sentiment remains in South Korea. [252] The U.S. State Department has estimated that North Korea's military spending averaged 23% of its GDP from 2004 to 2014, the highest level in the world. [298][300], Songbun allegedly affects access to educational and employment opportunities and particularly whether a person is eligible to join North Korea's ruling party. North Korea runs on a centrally-planned economy model that is not based on money. The scale of its significance remains unknown and is a closely guarded secret, however. [270] Only one out of ten leading causes of overall deaths in North Korea is attributed to communicable diseases (lower respiratory infection), a disease which is reported to have declined by six percent since 2007. [185] The next few years witnessed a string of hostilities, including the alleged North Korean involvement in the sinking of South Korean warship Cheonan,[85] mutual ending of diplomatic ties,[186] a North Korean artillery attack on Yeonpyeong Island,[187] and growing international concern over North Korea's nuclear program. "North Korea in 2015. [141], Claims that the dynasty has been deified are contested by North Korea researcher B. R. Myers: "Divine powers have never been attributed to either of the two Kims. First Vice Chairman of State Affairs Commission, Vice Chairman of State Affairs Commission, Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland, country with the highest number of military and paramilitary personnel, Provisional People's Committee for North Korea, Ten Principles for the Establishment of a Monolithic Ideological System, Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army, On Eliminating Dogmatism and Formalism and Establishing Juche in Ideological Work, General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, The kidnapping of at least 13 Japanese citizens, International Coalition to Stop Crimes Against Humanity in North Korea, North Korea and weapons of mass destruction, largest military institution in the world, Central Military Commission of the Workers' Party of Korea, sanctioned under United Nations Security Council resolutions, North–South differences in the Korean language, Central Bank of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, National Aerospace Development Administration, Chairman of the Central Military Commission, "Kim Jong Un's North Korea: Life inside the totalitarian state", United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, "DPR Korea 2008 Population Census National Report", "National Accounts Main Aggregate Database", "North Korean Economy Watch » GDP statistics", "North Korea Accidentally Reveals It Only Has 28 Websites", "North Korea's nuclear 'deal' leaves Japan feeling nervous", "North Korea Says It Is Using Plutonium to Make A-Bombs", "Report of the Commission of Inquiry on Human Rights in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Chapter VII. Check out variants for North Korea abbreviation in World The Juche ideology is the cornerstone of party works and government operations. Schaefer, Bernd. [71], Recovery from the war was quick—by 1957 industrial production reached 1949 levels. [271] Non-communicable diseases risk factors in North Korea include high rates of urbanization, an aging society, and high rates of smoking and alcohol consumption amongst men. [304] For several decades, it followed the Soviet pattern of five-year plans with the ultimate goal of achieving self-sufficiency. South Korea. In 1971, secret, high-level contacts began to be conducted culminating in the 1972 July 4th North–South Joint Statement that established principles of working toward peaceful reunification. [42] The modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel. [308] Tourism has been a growing sector for the past decade. The North failed in several assassination attempts on South Korean leaders, such as in 1968, 1974, and the Rangoon bombing in 1983; tunnels were found under the DMZ and tensions flared over the axe murder incident at Panmunjom in 1976. KR Alpha-2. [7] North Korea is bordered by China and by Russia along the Amnok (known as the Yalu in Chinese) and Tumen rivers[94] and borders South Korea along the Korean Demilitarized Zone. [345] Cars are relatively rare,[356] but bicycles are common. [203] On the basis of these abuses, as well as persecution on political, religious, racial and gender grounds, forcible transfer of populations, enforced disappearance of persons and forced starvation, the United Nations Commission of Inquiry has accused North Korea of crimes against humanity. An adequate nationwide fiber-optic telephone system with 1.18 million fixed lines[374] and expanding mobile coverage is in place. North Korea, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, D.P.R.K., DPRK (noun) a communist country in the northern half of the Korean Peninsula; established in 1948. see more ». [273], According to a 2003 report by the United States Department of State, almost 100% of the population has access to water and sanitation. [350], Road transport is very limited—only 724 kilometers of the 25,554 kilometer road network are paved,[351] and maintenance on most roads is poor. In the wider world, because the government controls the northern part of the Korean Peninsula, it is commonly called North Korea to distinguish it from South Korea, which is officially called the Republic of Korea in English.