Difference Between C3 and C4 Plants Mesophyll and bundle sheath cells have structurally and functionally different chloroplasts. B) only when there is enough ATP. They all use a supplementary method of CO 2 uptake which forms a 4-carbon molecule instead of the two 3-carbon molecules of the Calvin cycle.Hence these plants are called C4 plants. Enter your e-mail address. They have starch granules and unstacked thylakoid membranes. Second, C4 plants have specialized leaf anatomy with two different types of photosynthetic cells: mesophyll cells (on the exterior of the leaf, near stomata) and bundle sheath cells (in the interior of the leaf, far away from stomata). What are Mesophyll Cells C4 plants have evolved a special, energy-requiring pathway to create high, local concentrations of CO 2 for the Calvin-Benson Cycle. C) takes place in the mesophyll cells D) takes place in the bundle sheath cells 2.Respiration in plants occurs A) only at night. My lecturer said that CAM plants only have mesophyll plants. Your email address will not be published. Second, C4 plants have specialized leaf anatomy with two different types of photosynthetic cells: mesophyll cells (on the exterior of the leaf, near stomata) and bundle sheath cells (in the interior of the leaf, far away from stomata). C … 2001). They are seen around leaf veins surrounding the vascular bundles. Mesophyll cells are present in the middle of the leaf surrounding the bundle sheath cells. Moreover, they have centrifugally arranged chloroplasts. B) Mesophyll cells have PEP carboxylase while bundle sheath cells have RuBisCO. Both mesophyll and bundle sheath cells are living plant cells. … Mesophyll cells are present in the middle of the leaf surrounding the bundle sheath cells. RUBISCO is literally absent in the chloroplasts of mesophyll cells. Chloroplasts of bundle sheath cells possess unstacked thylakoid membranes. In C 4 plants, mesophyll (M) chloroplasts are randomly distributed along the cell walls, while bundle sheath (BS) chloroplasts are typically located in either a centripetal or centrifugal position. In C4 plants, mesophyll cells are differentiated to carry out only light dependant reactions of photosynthesis in order to minimize photorespiration. Spongy parenchyma cells are loosely arranged; hence, there are a lot of intercellular spaces between cells. A) takes place at night. In particular, photosynthetic functions are divided between mesophyll and bundle-sheath leaf cells. Leaves in C4 plants such as maize (Zea mays) form a classical Kranz leaf anatomy during their development (Edwards and Walker, 1983; Nelson and Langdale, 1992). In Kranz anatomy, each vascular bundle is surrounded by bundle sheath cells. In C 4 plants, mesophyll (M) chloroplasts carry out the light reactions of photosynthesis, while bundle sheath (BS) chloroplasts are the sites of carbon re-fixation and the Calvin cycle (Hatch 1999, Kanai and Edwards 1999). The below infographic summarizes the difference between mesophyll and bundle sheath cells. PEP carboxylase levels are higher in mesophyll cells than in bundle-sheath cells. So who is right? Compare the Difference Between Similar Terms. Fewer chloroplasts in C(4) M cells would also reduce shading of the bundle sheath chloroplasts, which also generate energy required by C(4) photosynthesis. The cells are tightly packed without intercellular spaces. Rubisco is located in bundle sheath cells, but not in mesophyll cells. Subsequent steps are carried out in bundle sheath cells. The bundle sheath cells of C4 plants like Zea mays (maize) have long been a target of extensive research in attempts to understand the specialized enzymatic reactions that occur in the bundle sheath and mesophyll tissues in C4 photosynthesis (Sheen 1999; Edwards et al. 14: Chloroplasts monomorphic (single type) in C3 plants (usual granal type). In this Kranz anatomy, each vein is surrounded by a ring of bundle sheath (BS) cells, followed by … Mesophyll cells are the cells in C4 plants that carry out light dependant reactions of photosynthesis. Bundle sheath cells have thick cell walls and contain centrifugally arranged chloroplasts with large starch granules and unstacked thylakoid membranes, whereas the mesophyll cells contain randomly arranged chloroplasts with stacked thylakoids and little or no starch grains. In plants with the C 4 pathway either a single or a double layered sheath may be developed. C4 photosynthesis is characterized by a CO2-concentrating mechanism between mesophyll ([M][1]) and bundle sheath ([BS][2]) cells of leaves. Mesophyll cells then surround bundle sheath cells. It consists of columnar shaped cells. Initial CO2 fixation takes place in the cytoplasm of mesophyll cells by the enzyme PEP carboxylase. This generates high metabolic fluxes between these cells, through interconnecting plasmodesmata ([PD][3]). In C4 plants, both mesophyll and bundle sheath cells are photosynthetic tissues. (Plants that have only the Calvin cycle are thus C3 plants.) @media (max-width: 1171px) { .sidead300 { margin-left: -20px; } } So, this is the summary of the difference between mesophyll and bundle sheath cells. Rubisco enzyme in bundle sheath cells fix CO2 and produce sugars. 6. C) only during the day. So, this is the key difference between mesophyll and bundle sheath cells. Their primary role is photosynthesis. ? The CO2 released by the OAA is accepted by RuBP and enter into C3 cycle.11RUBISCO is literally absent in the chloroplasts of mesophyll cells.Higher concentration of RUBISCO occurs in the bundle sheath cells.12Starch grains are absent in the chloroplasts of mesophyll cells.Starch grains are abundantly present in the chloroplasts of bundle sheath cells. But C4 plants use PEP Carboxylase for the enzyme involved in the uptake of CO2. CO 2 is fixed in mesophyll cells and the mesophyll chloroplasts form starch. • Leaf Reticulate Mutants 17 photosynthetic system. Both types of cells are differentiated cells. This generates high metabolic fluxes between these cells, through interconnecting plasmodesmata ([PD][3]). C4 plants have a unique leaf anatomy including two types of photosynthetic cells: bundle-sheath cells and mesophyll cells, where as C3 plants contain only mesophyll cells. Leaves in C4 plants such as maize (Zea mays) form a classical Kranz leaf anatomy during their development (Edwards and Walker, 1983; Nelson and Langdale, 1992). We note that a number of striped mutants, reminiscent of the reticulate phenotype, have been described in C4 and C3 plants, such as the bundle sheath defective and yellow stripe mutants of Maize … Moreover, mesophyll cells have stacked thylakoids and little or no starch granules. Lundquist et al. “C3, C4, And CAM Plants (Article).” Khan Academy, Khan Academy, Available here. Ø  Both possess the thylakoid membrane system. The cells are oval-shaped or irregular shaped. Degree in Plant Science, M.Sc. We note that a number of striped mutants, reminiscent of the reticulate phenotype, have been described in C4 and C3 plants, such as the bundle sheath defective and yellow stripe mutants of Maize … They do not have starch granules. C4 plants are a group of plants that carry out C4 photosynthesis or C4 carbon fixation. Most of the plants follow the Calvin cycle, which is the C3 photosynthesis pathway.These plants grow in regions where there is adequate water availability. In contrast, bundle sheath cells are the cells surrounding the leaf veins of C4 plants that carry out light-independent reactions. But I have read different web pages saying that they have both bundle sheath and mesophyll cells. Mesophyll cells possess thin cell walls and randomly arranged chloroplasts with stacked thylakoids. The bundle sheath cells lack intercellular spaces. 2014 Nov;37(11) :2587-600. In these bundle-sheath cells CO 2 is released by decarboxylation of the malate. It is located below the palisade parenchyma, towards the lower epidermis. 2 is shuttled via malate or aspartate from mesophyll cells to bundle-sheath cells. C4 photosynthesis is characterized by a CO2-concentrating mechanism between mesophyll ([M][1]) and bundle sheath ([BS][2]) cells of leaves. My lecturer said that CAM plants only have mesophyll plants. Figure 01: C4 Plant Leaf Anatomy (A: Mesophyll Cell B: Chloroplast C: Vascular Tissue D: Bundle Sheath Cell E: Stroma F: Vascular Tissue). Mesophyll chloroplasts are comparatively smaller. Do they have both bundle sheath and mesophyll cells OR just one type? Summary. Large amount of ATPs and reduced coenzymes are generated in the mesophyll cells. Also, what about C3 plants? No.Mesophyll Cells & ChloroplastsBundle Sheath Cells & Chloroplasts1Mesophyll chloroplasts are comparatively smaller.Bundle sheath chloroplasts are comparatively larger.2Mesophyll cells are thin walled and gas permeable cells.Bundle sheath cells are comparatively thick-walled and gas impermeable cells.3Vacuoles in the mesophyll cells are comparatively larger.Bundle sheath cells possess smaller sized vacuoles.4Mesophyll cells possess randomly arranged chloroplasts.Bundle sheath has centrifugally arranged chloroplasts.5Chloroplasts of mesophyll cells possess stacked thylakoid membranes.Chloroplasts of bundle sheath cells possess unstacked thylakoid membranes.6Mesophyll chloroplasts possess well developed and large grana.Bundle sheath chloroplasts do not contain grana (if present very few and ill-developed).7In mesophyll cells, the light dependent reaction is favoured.In bundle sheath cells, the light independent reactions are favoured.8Large amount of ATPs and reduced coenzymes are generated in the mesophyll cells.Very little or no ATPs or reduced coenzymes are generated in the bundle sheath cells.9Plenty of oxygen is evolved in the chloroplasts of mesophyll cells.In bundle sheath chloroplasts, the evolution of oxygen is literally absent due to the absence of light reaction.10No CO2 fixation takes place in the chloroplasts of mesophyll cells. The principle of the C4 photosynthetic pathway is the shuttle of metabolites between mesophyll and bundle sheath cells (see also Chapter 5) and an increase in CO 2 concentration in the bundle sheath cells to optimize the Calvin cycle. C4 plants are usually _____ in shady habitats because C4 photosynthesis has _____ ATP requirements than the C3 pathway. Ø  Both contain the green pigments- chlorophylls. 3. On the other hand, bundle sheath cells surround leaf veins or vascular bundles of C4 plants. Do they have both bundle sheath and mesophyll cells OR just one type? Bundle sheath cells possess smaller sized vacuoles. Lundquist et al. Both types of cells have chloroplasts and appear in green colour. The Systematic Comparison of C3 and C4 Plants can be made through Metabolic Network. Starch grains are abundantly present in the chloroplasts of bundle sheath cells. Her research interests include Bio-fertilizers, Plant-Microbe Interactions, Molecular Microbiology, Soil Fungi, and Fungal Ecology. OAA is then transported from the mesophyll cells to the bundle sheath cells. During the past few years, Mesophyll chloroplasts possess well developed and large grana. In this Kranz anatomy, each vein is surrounded by a ring of bundle sheath (BS) cells, followed by one or more concentric files of mesophyll (M) cells. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Copyright © 2010-2018 Difference Between. Plenty of oxygen is evolved in the chloroplasts of mesophyll cells. 4. C4 Plants. g bs on a leaf area basis is the product of the conductance across the M-BS interface and the bundle sheath surface area-to-leaf area ratio (S b). Bundle sheath has centrifugally arranged chloroplasts. Mesophyll cells possess randomly arranged chloroplasts. The CO2 released by the OAA is accepted by RuBP and enter into C3 cycle. They have large chloroplasts without grana. 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